A)By using a Participle:
i)Ram saw a snake. He became afraid.
Ans. Seeing a snake Ram became afraid.
ii)He saw a bird. It was flying over my head.
Ans. He saw a bird flying over my head. OR. He saw a flying bird over my head.
iii)Tapan opened the box. He found his old toys.
Ans. Opening the box Tapan found his old toys.
iv)Sita was tired. She took a rest for a while.
Ans. Being tired Sita took a rest for a while.
B)By using an Infinitive:
i)My friend has two daughters. He has to educate them.
Ans. My friend has two daughters to educate.
ii)The lady seems very tired. She cannot walk anymore.
Ans. The lady seems too tired to walk anymore.
iii)My father has an old car. He wants to replace it.
Ans. My father has an old car to replace.
iv) The girl is working hard. She wishes to crack the UPSC within two attempts.
Ans. The girl is working hard to crack the UPSC within two attempts.
C)By using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition:
I)Goutam Gambhir plays for Delhi. Delhi is the capital of India.
Ans. Goutam Gambhir plays for Delhi, the capital of India.
ii)Messi is a good football player. He scored two goals in the final.
Ans. Messi, a good football player, scored two goals in the final.
iii)This is my friend. His name is Animesh.
Ans. This is my friend, Animesh.
iv)Puri is famous for the Jagannath temple. It belongs to the state of Odisha.
Ans. Puri, famous for the Jagannath temple, belongs to the state of Odisha.
D)By using Absolute Phrase:
i)The sun rose. We started our journey.
Ans. The sun having risen, we started our journey.
ii) The Teacher entered the class. The pupils became silent.
Ans. The teacher having entered the class, the pupils became silent.
iii) The programme was over. The crowd left the place.
Ans. The programme being over, the crowd left the place.
iv)The day is very hot. We postpone our journey.
Ans. The day being very hot, we postpone our journey.
E)By using a Preposition with a Noun or Gerund:
i)The artist displays his paintings at the exhibition. In this way, he maintains his livelihood.
Ans. The artist maintains his livelihood by displaying his paintings in the exhibition.
ii)The boy was suffering from fever before the examination. He still scored well.
Ans. In spite of his suffering from fever before the examination, the boy scored well.
iii)He worked very hard. He did not take a rest.
Ans. He worked very hard without any rest.
iv)Mr Anish helped the poor students with the books. He also gave them some money for the exercise books.
Ans. Besides helping the poor students with the books, Mr Anish gave them some money for the exercise books.
v) He entered the stadium. The match had already started.
Ans. He entered the stadium after the start of the match.
F)By using an adverb or Adverbial phrase:
i)He will achieve success in life. It is sure.
Ans. He will surely achieve success in life.
ii)My brother has failed the examination. It is unfortunate.
Ans. Unfortunately, my brother has failed the examination.
iii)Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam was awarded Bharat Ratna. He deserved it.
Ans. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam was deservedly awarded Bharat Ratna.
iv)My mother returned home from the office. It was 9 o’clock then.
Ans. My mother returned home from the office at 9 o’clock.